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  • Top 10 gene mutations in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that drives the outcome

    Mutations are common in cancer genome Cancer genome is heterogenous. There are many mutations. Over time, the cancer genome mutates more and more. Some of these mutations can alter protein functions. For example, TP53 is a known oncogene and is mutated in many different cancer types. The figure below shows the different mutation hotspots in TP53 in NSCLC. A majority of mutations occur in amino acid positions 175, 245, 248, 273, and 282 (NM_000546) (Olivier et al., 2010). TP53 is a tumor suppressor TP53 gene is located in the short arm of chromosome 17. To fulfill its proper biological function four TP53 polypeptides, synthesized from the gene, must form a tetramer which functions as a transcription factor. This transcription factor regulates expression of many genes including genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair, autophagy, and metabolism regulation. To learn more about TP53 tumor suppressor protein, click here. While a large proportion of cancer genomics research is focused on somatic variants, TP53 can also be mutated in the germline leading to cancer-prone Li-Fraumeni syndrome. TP53 is the most frequent mutation observed in cancer. Is TP53 mutation treatable in NSCLC? No. Not yet. The mutations seen in TP53 protein are "loss of function" mutations. As TP53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor, loss of function causes tumors to form. In the future, it may be possible to correct the single nucleotide mutations through therapeutic genome editing technologies such as CRISPER/Cas9. Are there other NSCLC mutations that are treatable? Yes. If a mutation causes a gain of function that contributes towards the tumor formation, then it can be treated with a drug to inhibit the improper function of the mutated protein, such as the KRAS and the EGFR mutations. How can you determine the mutations in the NSCLC genome? It can be done via NextGen DNA sequencing. Molecular profiling of the lung cancer genome is necessary in order to ensure the best treatment approach. Is there something that can be done to avoid TP53 mutation? Cancer is a biological accident. Mutations happen when the protein (called a DNA polymerase) puts in the wrong DNA base during DNA replication process by accident. Some of these mutations may change a protein function, which may lead to cancer. Cancer is the loss of cell cycle regulation resulting in unlimited cell division. These cancer cells keep dividing and replace the normal cells in the our organs. As a result, the organs fail to function properly and the patient dies. But cancer is a not a death sentence anymore. Cancer treatment has improved cancer survival a lot in the past 25 years. It is only going to get better. Eventually cancer is going to become a chronic disease, which may not be curable but patients may be able to live a long good quality life. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Author: Anirban Mukherjee, PhD June 2, 2021 Founder | Cancer Therapies 4 U LLC

  • Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy - Adriamycin + Cyclophosphamide

    USED WHEN? Used as a combination add-on (adjuvant) chemotherapy to treat breast cancer patients with auxiliary lymph node involvement after surgical removal of the primary cancer. DOSAGE ●Adriamycin (doxorubicin) is administered at 40 to 75 mg/m2 when administered in combination chemotherapy. ●Cyclophosphamide capsules are 25 mg or 50 mg. It can also be administered via infusion. Hydration is very important to reduce the risk of urinary tract toxicity. A total of 4 cycles of AC is administered every 21 days. Overdosing may happen. Takes 3-4 weeks to recover. MECHANISM OF ACTION ●Adriamycin inhibits cell proliferation and in duces DNA strand breaks in cells. ●Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug, which is processed in the liver. The products induce covalent crosslinks in cellular DNA, which inhibits replication and induces cell death. Both of these drugs are cytotoxic drugs. SIDE EFFECTS ● Adriamycin related severe side effects: cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, secondary cancers, leakage of blood vessels, tissue necrosis, severe low blood cell count, tumor lysis syndrome, radiation sensitization etc. ● Cyclophosphamide related severe side-effects: hyper-sensitivity, low blood counts, urinary tract and renal, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, secondary cancers, infertility etc. CLINICAL STUDIES There are many clinical studies published and several meta-analyses have been performed. The following clinical study is presented in a simplified fashion. Clinical study 1 ♦ In a phase 3 clinical trial with 1016 patients who had surgically removed stage I to III invasive breast cancer, patients were treated with either doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide or with docetaxel+ cyclophosphamide. The results are as follows: ● Doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide : 5-year disease-free survival rate = 80% 5-year overall survival rate = 87% ● Docetaxel + cyclophosphamide: 5-year disease-free survival = 86% 5-year overall survival rate = 90% For more information: We can help you with more simplified data so that you can make informed decisions about your treatment options. Visit for more information. OTHER COMBINATIONS AC-T = Adriamycin + cyclophosphamide + taxol BREAST CANCER OUTCOME 5-year overall survival is 90% in the USA. 15% of all cancer cases is breast cancer but 7% of all cancer related mortality is due to breast cancer. There are 39 FDA-approved drugs to treat breast cancer in the USA. Sources: NCI and NIH. #breastcancer #chemotherapy #cancer #AC #cancertreatments #doxorubicin #adriamycin #cyclophosphamide ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Author: Anirban Mukherjee, PhD The author is a scientist at the University of Texas at Austin and researches novel chemotherapeutic targets and chemotherapeutic DNA damage processing .

  • Cancer Pain - how does one manage?

    Cancer pain is experienced by 20% - 50% of the cancer patients. Why do patients experience pain from cancer? What are the best ways to manage pain from cancer? Managing cancer pain is a big part of cancer treatment. Cancer patients should clearly communicate to their oncologists about the pain they are experiencing. Communication from patients is the gold standard of accessing pain. Pain management has serious implications on the quality of life of the cancer patients. PAIN CLASSIFICATION · Acute · Chronic · Breakthrough · Nociceptive · Neuropathic · Psychogenic DRUGS TO TREAT CANCER PAIN · NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) · Opioids · Add-on pain medicines · Cannabinoids OTHER OPTIONS · Massage · Chiropractic therapy · Reflexology · Reiki · Acupuncture · Scrambler therapy Detailed explanation can be found on website. You can also read up peer-reviewed journal articles on cancer pain management by visiting Below I will try to summarize cancer pain and give you a very basic idea of how cancer pain is clinically managed. BONE PAIN Bone pain is one of the most common causes of pain when the disease has metastasized. Most patients are prescribed morphine (or other opioids) for pain relief. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and corticosteroids are also prescribed. They are moderately effective and safe. Zoledronic acid or pamidronate or denosumab are used to reduce bone pain (skeletal events) related events. Palliative radiation therapy can cause pain relief and the effect can last up to 6 months. Surgical intervention is another option. VISCERAL PAIN Opioids remain the main form of treatment to ease pain from visceral organs, such as bladder, stomach, bowel and ureters. The main source of visceral pain may be hard to locate sometimes. NEUROPATHIC PAIN Neuropathic pain is common in cancer patients. Approximately 17% of the cancer patients receive neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is used as a monotherapy to reduce neuropathic pain. Sometimes gabapentin + opioids provide better pain relief within 4-8 days for incontrollable pain. Pregabalin is used to reduce radiation-therapy induced neuropathic pain. MASTECTOMY RELATED PAIN Venlafaxine or gabapentin or pregabalin is used with various results in reducing pain from mastectomy. POST-THORACOTOMY PAIN Pain that persists after 2 months of thoracotomy. Opioids and non-opioid analgesics are used to manage the pain. CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED PAIN Duloxetine is the only drug that has been systematically studied. It can help reduce pain from chemotherapy. Gabapentin does not provide any relief from pain caused by chemotherapy. Venlafaxine is used to treat neuropathy from oxaliplatin. Natural products such as acetyl-L-carnitine showed worsening of pain and the worsening persisted up to two years in some patients. **** If you want comprehensive information on cancer pain management, please check out our website for the report titled "Options To Manage Cancer Pain". #Cancer #pain #cancerpain #opioids #cannabinoids ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The information here has been summarized from National Cancer Institute. Follow this link if you want more information: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Author: Anirban Mukherjee, PhD The author is a cancer scientist from University of Texas at Austin working on developing new drugs to treat and manage chemoresistant forms of cancer. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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  • Cancer treatment options | Cancer treatment results

    cancer treatment related questions? We provide data-driven answers for cancer patients Know you options. Be your own advocate. Our cancer specific PRIORITY REPORTS provides comprehensive information for patients. They provide a general summary of FDA-approved chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy and hormone blocking drugs for individual cancers along with valuable information such as mechanism of action, approved indications, major side effects, clinical trials results, links to access other peer-reviewed scientific publications and much more. For specific questions that require literature search and data analysis to get meaningful answers, we prepare super insightful ADVANCED REPORTS for individual patients. In addition, if cancer patients want to talk to a scientific expert to discuss any cancer treatment related questions, they can take advantage of our DIRECT CONSULTATION and talk to cancer scientists directly involved in cancer research and new cancer drug development. SPECIAL REPORts: cancer treatment options and outcomes Quick View Breast Cancer Treatment Options And Outcomes - resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Prostate Cancer Treatment Options and Outcomes - information for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Lung Cancer Treatment Options And Outcomes - information resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Ovarian Cancer Treatment Options & Outcomes - information resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Brain Cancer Treatment Options and Outcomes - information resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Options & Outcomes - info & resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Breast Cancer Treatment Options And Outcomes - resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Prostate Cancer Treatment Options and Outcomes - information for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Lung Cancer Treatment Options And Outcomes - information resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Ovarian Cancer Treatment Options & Outcomes - information resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Brain Cancer Treatment Options and Outcomes - information resource for patients Price $25.00 Quick View Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Options & Outcomes - info & resource for patients Price $25.00 Myths about cancer treatments Choose evidence based therapeutic approaches CAN HIGH DOSES OF VITAMIN C REPLACE CHEMOTHERAPY, RADIOTHERAPY, IMMUNOTHERAPY AND TARGETED THERAPY? No. There is no clinical evidence to support this theory. Chemotherapy/radiation therapy cannot be replaced with high doses of any vitamin. Vitamins do not treat cancer. "HERBAL MEDICINE WORKS BETTER WITHOUT THE SIDE EFFECTS." No. There is no such evidence that proves clinical benefit with herbal remedies over chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy and other forms of therapy. "THE GOVERNMENT AND THE PHARMA COMPANIES HAVE THE CURE FOR CANCER ALREADY!" No. No one has the cure for cancer, yet. But cancer treatment is getting better everyday. Breakthrough treatments are being discovered faster than ever before. Cancer is not a death sentence anymore. "CHEMOTHERAPY IS POISON AND IT KILLS THE PATIENT FASTER" C hemotherapy does not kill you faster. It is true that chemotherapeutic drugs are toxic to the cells but all the FDA approved chemotherapeutic drugs show survival benefit over no treatment. "CANNABIS OIL CAN CURE CANCER" No. Recent meta analysis of patients suggests that cannabis and cannabinoids does not help in cancer regression. In fact, use of cannabis products reduces the clinical benefit of immunotherapy in some instances. Cannabis may lower the side effects of cancer and cancer treatments. "SURGERY AND BIOPSY CAN CAUSE THE CANCER TO SPREAD FASTER" No. Cancer cells undergo a physiological changes before they start spreading, which is called "transformation". Surgery or biopsy has nothing to do with it. ARE THERE DOCTORS IN MEXICO AND GERMANY WHO CURE ADVANCED CANCERS WITH SECRET IMMUNOTHERAPY? Best cancer treatments are provided in the USA. The US FDA properly evaluates the efficacy of a drug and approves it. Cancer patients need to make informed decisions before choosing to get treatments that are not FDA-approved. There are many scammers who use the vulnerability of cancer patients and sell them treatments. "CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIATION THERAPY CAN CAUSE CANCER" Chemotherapy and radiation therapy sometimes can cause secondary cancer . But the risk outweighs the benefit. Without the treatment, the lifespan of the cancer patient will be much shorter. contact us For any of your cancer treatment related informational need, please contact us. Email: Phone: +1 512-366-0888 | Monday - Friday 8:00 am - 6:00 pm CST Name Email Subject Leave us a message... Submit

  • Cancer treatment options explained |

    CANCER TREATMENT RELATED QUESTIONS answered It matters where you get your answers form. Cancer treatment is a complicated process. As a cancer patient, you may have a lot of questions. It is not always possible to get answers from doctors or oncologists. Ask us your cancer treatment-related questions. We provide data-driven answers to cancer patients so that they can decide what is the best cancer treatment option out there. We believe that with proper information from our bioinformatics approach, patients can advocate for themselves and make informed decisions together with their doctors. We simplify cancer therapies for patients. We have helped hundreds of patients understand their options and make educated decisions. We provide you data from the same source that the healthcare professionals use. To understand the FDA-approved treatment options read our PRIORITY REPORTS on individual cancers. If you have a specific cancer treatment related question, we can provide an ADVANCED REPORT . If you want to learn about cancer and treatments in details and understand options from a cancer coach, we can provide DIRECT CONSULTATION as well. Learn about cancer specific markers Is immunotherapy going to work for me? There are several factors that will determine whether immunotherapy is going to work for you or not. The PD-L1 expression levels, as determined by an FDA-approved companion diagnostic test, are important for anti PD-L1 antibodies, such as pembrolizumab (brand name KEYTRUDA from Merck). Sometimes the side effects can be limiting and therefore the immunotherapy may not be continued. There are certain unknown variable as well, such as the tumor microenvironment and how that modulates the immune response. That is why every patient is unique and each outcome can vary. We can help you using bioinformatics and by analyzing the outcomes data of thousands of patients available form public data sets. The results are great indicators of how things are going to go. For information research with your unique diagnosis, email . To learn about all the FDA-approved immunotherapy for a particular cancer type, read our PRIORITY REPORT on that particular type of cancer. Is there any alternative to chemotherapy? Chemotherapy may have a lot of temporary painful side effects, but it has been successful in improving lifespan for millions of cancer patients. The future of cancer treatment is moving towards immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy. As cancer management has improved, the mortality rate from cancer has dropped by 25% in the past 25 years. An efficient alternative to cytotoxic chemotherapy would be targeted therapy, where a mutant kinase protein is targeted given that the cancer has a mutated kinase. These treatments are called targeted treatments. I have cancer treatment related questions By using bioinformatics to analyze large scale patient data, we can bring you the answers to any cancer treatment related questions that you have. With our data-driven approach you can be confident that you are making informed decisions. There is so much information out there that it can be really confusing. It matters where you get your scientific information from. CONTACT US Email: Go Back

  • Cancer Pain Management | | Texas

    What is the best way to manage cancer pain? There are pharmacologic approaches, non-pharmacologic approaches, homeopathic approaches as well as other approaches to cancer pain management. Cancer pain treatment is a part of cancer treatment. Do not let anyone convince you that it is normal and patients have to live with the pain. Cancer pain classification About 50% of all cancer patients experience some sort of pain. Approximately, 80% of the patients with advanced cancer experience pain. Younger patients may experience more pain, when compared to older patients. How can I learn more about cancer pain management? To learn more about pain management options, email us at . Go Back

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